|Volume 1, Number 1, pp.1-10 (1996)|
|A Recent Activity in Forensic Science Research|
|Volume 1, Number 1, pp.11-20 (1996)|
|Face-to-Face Video Superimposition Using Three Dimensional Physiognomic Analysis|
|Mineo Yoshino, Satoshi Kubota, Hideaki Matsuda, Kazuhiko Imaizumi, Sachio Miyasaka and Sueshige Seta|
|This face-to-face video superimposition system consists of two main pieces of equipment, namely a 3D physiognomic measurement apparatus for obtaining 3D image data of face, and a 3D analysis apparatus for comparing the 3D facial image with facial photographs video superimposition. The 3D physiognomic measurement apparatus is composed of a detector comprised of two laser scanner devices and two CCD cameras, an image encoder interfaced to a computer, and two TV monitors. The 3D analysis apparatus comprises of the following five parts: a host computer, an image processing unit, a CCD camera for inputting facial photographs of a perpetrator, a video image mixing unit and a TV monitor. The 3D surface morphology of a suspect face is measured with the detector using three representative parameters of the facial surface, that is, the illumination, brightness and depth data. The parameters are measured and then stored on the floppy disk. The 3D facial image of the suspect is superimposed on the facial photograph of the perpetrator on the monitor using the 3D analysis apparatus. In order to assess the reliability of the facial photographic identification with this system, the face-to-face superimposition was experimentally investigated. An oblique facial photograph of a target person was compared to the 3D facial image of the target person and other 19 examinees. The 2D facial photograph of the target person revealed a good match with the 3D facial image of one of the subjects, giving a positive identification. This system will be a useful tool for forensic photographic comparison and will prove very effective in court because the video superimposition of two faces can be performed under the same facial orientation.|
|Keywords...Forensic anthropology, Facial photographic identification, 3D facial image, Video superimposition|
|Volume 1, Number 1, pp.21-26 (1996)|
|Behavioral Changes in Guinea Pigs Treated with Long-Term Administration of Methamphetamine and Immunohistochemical Changes in Their Brains|
|Satoshi Kubota, Sachio Miyasaka, Mineo Yoshino, Ken Tanaka, Takako Inoue and Sueshige Seta|
|The aim of this study is to examine the stereotyped behaviors in animals treated with long-term methamphetamine (MAP) administration, and to clarify the correlation between these behaviors and changes in dopaminergic neuronal activity by immunohistochemistry.|
Ten male guinea pigs weighing 300 - 350g were used as experimental animals. MAP was intraperitoneally injected into animate at a dose of 10mg/kg/day for 15 weeks. As a control group, ten animals were injected with normal saline solution. After observations on the behaviors for 15 weeks, all animals were subjected to the immunohistochemical examination for dopaminergic neuronal activity. Cryostat sections (20 /µm) obtained from the striatum, the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area were incubated with polyclonal anti -dopamine (DA) antibody.
Body weight of MAP-treated animal was significantly lower than that of control animal after 7 weeks of administration period. The stereotyped behaviors including biting, turning, rearing, jumping and head-weaving were observed in MAP-treated animals. Biting was the most popular behavior observed in MAP-treated animals and was found in all animals immediately after the administration of MAP, while other behaviors were frequently observed in MAP-treated animals in the latter half of administration period. DA-immunostainability in neurons of the substantia nigra in MAP-treated animals showed an obvious decrease compared with that in control animals.
In this study, the long-term MAP administration decreased a DA level of neurons in the substantia nigra and induced the stereotyped behaviors in the latter period of administration. It is considered that the neurochemical changes in the nigrostriatal tract may correlate to the appearance of the stereotyped behaviors.
|Keywords...Methamphetamine, Stereotyped behavior, Brain, Dopamine, Immunohistochemistry|
|Volume 1, Number 1, pp.27-31 (1996)|
|Ash and Elemental Analyses for Forensic Discrimination of Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Tapes|
|Yasushi Ehara,Takahiro Tsukame and Michio Kutsuzawa|
|In recent serious crimes, such as murder, burglary or rape, pressure sensitive adhesive cloth tapes (PSAT) are frequently used for binding hands and feet, gagging and blindfolding, or packing of important physical evidence including the bodies of murder victims.|
For the forensic identification of PSAT, color examination, backing cloth examination, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and pyrolysis gas-chromatography (Py-GC) have been reported.
In this paper, discrimination of PSAT by ash content and elemental ratio of adhesives was studied. Fifty-seven PSAT samples obtained from 20 manufacturers were subjected to yarn density measurements.
Further analyses of ash and elemental contents of adhesives was conducted by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), in the undistinguished tapes by yarn density measurements. A Combination of the data from measurements of yarn density, adhesive ash content and Ti/ (Ca+Ti) ratios enabled us to classify the 57 PSAT samples into 36 groups.
Though exposure of PSAT to the atmosphere or water for 24 weeks showed essentially no effect oh ash contents and Ti/ (Ca+Ti) ratios, except for exposure to an acid solution (pH<1).
Applied together with conventional techniques, such as color examination, FT-IR and Py-GC, the techniques reported here can increase the discrimination capability of forensic analyses.
|Keywords...Pressure sensitive adhesive cloth tape, Yarn density, Thermogravimetry, Ash analysis, Elemental analysis|
|Volume 1, Number 1, pp.33-37 (1996)|
|TH01 Typing of Japanese Population and its Application to Evidential Samples|
|Kanako Yoshida, Kentaro Kasai, Hiroaki Senju, Kazumasa Sekiguchi, Natsuko Mizuno, Ikuko Sakai, Hajime Sato and Sueshige Seta|
|PCR amplified products on TH01 locus from bloodstain samples were analyzed by denatured polyacrylamide gel and were detected by silver staining. To adjust the PCR amplification condition on TH01 locus various annealing temperatures were tested and the optimum condition was revealed as 64°C or 66°C. Under the adopted typing procedure, the separation between allele 10 and allele 10-1, which is one base shorter than allele 10, were successfully performed.|
The distribution of allele frequency on TH01 locus was examined of 501 unrelated Japanese. Seven alleles were observed ranging from allele 5 to 10 including allele 10-1 with allele 9 as the most common allele. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed. Observed heterozygosity was 0.723 and expected heterozygosity was 0.712.
This system was applied to aged bloodstain samples and positive result was obtained from 5 out of 6 bloodstain samples left at room temperature for 16 years whose extracted DNA was partially decomposed.
|Keywords...TH01 typing, STR polymorphism, Allele 10-1, Aged bloodstain|
|Volume 1, Number 1, pp.39-42 (1996)|
|Latent Fingerprint Visualization by Phosphorescence|
|Shinichi Suzuki, Harry J. van Enkevort, Yoshiteru Marumo and Sueshige Seta|
|In this report, the bases of a practical and simple method for effective visualizing of latent fingerprints by phosphorescence was investigated. After the cyanoacrylate treatment of latent fingerprint, phosphorescence reagents were used to enhance the visualization of the fingerprints. Only simple chemical treatments, physical, photographic methods and conventional light source were required. Sophisticated, electronic time imaging equipment or chopper system as used in previous reports were not required. Twenty one phosphorescence reagents were examined in this experiment, and three of them, 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid and p-aminoacetophenone were effective enough for the enhancement of latent fingerprints visualization and conventional use. The former two reagents were excited at 254nm, but the last one was excited at 350nm. This latent fingerprints detection method utilizing phosphorescence was considered effective, especially, when the back ground printing has a strong fluorescence.|
|Keywords...Latent fingerprint, Phosphorescence, Super Glue|
|Volume 1, Number 1, pp.43-48 (1996)|
|Application of ABO Blood Grouping Monoclonal Antibodies to Forensic Samples|
|Takeshi Ohmori, Natsuko Mizuno, Kazumasa Sekiguchi, Hiroaki Senju and Ikuko Sakai|
|Sensitivity and specificity of commercially available ABO blood grouping monoclonal antibodies for medical use were examined for applying them to forensic blood typing. We have applied some monoclonal antibodies to hemagglutination test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and absorption-elution test.|
Hemagglutination titer of these antibodies distributed ranging from x4 to x512.
All antibodies examined could be used for detecting ABO blood type from secretor's saliva by ELISA method and using five anti-A antibodies blood group substances could be detected from non-secretor's saliva. Using anti-A and anti-B antibodies blood type could be detected from secretor's semen but using any antibody blood type could not be detected from non-secretor's semen. We could not get a correlation between hemagglutination titer and sensitivity on ELISA detected from saliva and semen.
At absorption-elution test, using most of the anti-A and anti-B antibodies blood type could be detected of bloodstains and secretor's body fluid stains. Using several antibodies blood type could not be detected of non-secretor's samples. Using all of anti-A antibodies and some of anti-B antibodies it was failed to detect,,blood type of hair samples. Using all of the anti-H antibodies blood group substances could not be detected of stain or hair samples.
This result suggested that we have to select suitable monoclonal antibodies of ABO blood grouping for each evidential sample and each blood typing method.
|Keywords...ABO blood grouping, Monoclonal antibodies, ELISA, Absorption-elution test|
|Volume 1, Number 1, pp.49-51 (1996)|
|An Improved Method for Analysis of Oxidation Dyes in Human Hair|
|Norihiko Tanada, Mitsuyoshi Kageura, Seiichi Kashimura, Kenji Kara and Yoko Hieda|
|An improved method for selected ion monitoring analysis of oxidation hair dyes in human hair is described. Ten centimeter of hair specimen, stained with oxidation hair dye which was left for three months,was dissolved in 0.3 ml of 3N-NaOH solution containing 50 mg of sodium hydrosulfite. Then, the diamines (p-phenylenediamine [PPDA], toluene-2,5-diamine [T-2,5-DA]) were directly extractd with diethyl ether from the degraded hair solution. Aminophenols (o-aminophenol [OAF], m-aminophenol [MAP], p-aminophenol [PAP] ) were extracted with diethyl ether from the aqueous layer neutralized with 3N-acetic acid. Both extracts were devivatized with pentaflourobenzaldehyde and analyzed by GC/MS. Though PPDA, T-2,5-DA, OAP, MAP and PAP were not separated by previouly repoted method, these five main components of oxidation hair dyes were separated from each other and identified. By this method, MAP could be clearly separated from PAP.|
|Keywords...Human hair, Oxidation hair dye, Selected ion monitoring, Diamines, Aminophenol|
|Volume 1, Number 1, pp.53-55 (1996)|
|Identification of Smokeless Powder Gunshot Residues|
|Hiroyuki Aral and Jun Nakamura|
|Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was applied to quantitative analysis of organic gunshot residues. A small particle of the residue was collected from an adhesive sheet laid on the floor in front of a barrel. Smokeless powder and its residues were dissolved in acetone and submitted to GC /MS. The ingredients of smokeless powder were quantified by mass chromatography. The peak area ratio of stabilizers to nitroglycerin (NG) in the residue showed almost same value in the original smokeless powder. These results will suggest that the residue analysis is useful for characterizing the original powder.|
|Keywords...Smokeless powder, GC/MS. Organic gunshot residue|